By Chris Cow, Ph.D. Organic Chemistry
Advantages of the Fishless Cycle:
The advantages of this process over the traditional method of cycling a tank using a few small, hardy fish to get the bacterial colonies up and running all result from "front-end loading" the tank. The amount of ammonia added is far above that generated by a reasonable number of cycling fish, resulting in faster growth of the bacterial colonies, and larger colonies when you're finished.
In practical terms, this means that your tank cycles faster (reports of anywhere from 10 days to 3 weeks, depending on the fish tank...compared to average of 4-6 weeks for traditionally cycled tanks), and that you can fully stock a tank when the cycle is complete. This latter point is of particular interest to keepers of african cichlids or other aggressive fish. If these fish are all added together as juveniles, they are much more tolerant of each other than if they're added in small groups after the first fish have established their territories.
Of course, another big advantage is that no fish are subjected to high ammonia or nitrite concentrations, eliminating mortalities and ammonia/nitrite related illnesses which frequently occur in new tanks.
While the original recipe works quite well (4-5 drops NH3 / 10 gal / day until nitrite peaks, then reduce to 2-3 drops / 10 gal / day), it does NOT take into account varying concentrations of ammonia that are available. ACS grade ammonia, which I was using, is ~28% NH3, while most household cleaner grades vary from 4-10%, a fairly wide variation in concentration. Bottles that have been left open for long periods of time will be lower in concentration, as the NH3 gas escapes back into the atmosphere.
With that in mind, I'd like to propose a different recipe. Add ammonia to the tank initially to obtain a reading on your ammonia kit of ~5 ppm. Record the amount of ammonia that this took, then add that amount daily until the nitrite spikes. Once the nitrite is visible, cut back the daily dose of ammonia to ½ the original volume.
One advantage of this method is that the ammonia spike occurs immediately... when adding 4-5 drops/10 gal/day, it could take 4-5 days before the ammonia reaches the same levels. This should result in an acceleration of the entire process, though by how much (on average) remains to be seen.
Sources of Bacteria:
While it is probable that the bacteria required for the conversion of ammonia and nitrite to nitrate exist at very low levels in most uncycled tanks, it greatly accelerates the process to inoculate the tank with a large dose of healthy bacteria to get things started.
Good sources of beneficial bacteria are ranked from best to least: 1) Filter material (floss, sponge, biowheel, etc.) from an established, disease free tank. 2) Live Plants (preferrably potted, leave the rockwool on until cycling is finished). Crypts or amazon swords are good choices, and not too demanding. 3) Gravel from an established, disease free tank. (Many lfs will give this away if asked nicely) 4) Other ornaments (driftwood, rocks, etc.) from an established tank. 5) Squeezings from a filter sponge (any lfs should be willing to do this...)
There are also a number of commercial bacterial supplements (Cycle, Stress-Zyme, etc.) available. IMHO, without getting on a soapbox, these have very little to no effect, and are best left on the shelf. If you want to try it, go ahead, but I believe that any of the above options will be more effective, and most if not all of them will be cheaper.
Sources of Ammonia:
The most difficult part of the fishless cycling procedure, according to many postings on the message boards, involves finding a good source of Ammonia. Ammonia used should be free of surfactants, perfumes, and colourants. Unfortunately, not everyone has access to ACS grade ammonium hydroxide. Always read the ingredients on the bottle.
The best sources for Pure or Clear Ammonia are discount grocery stores or hardware stores. Often, the no-name brand is the stuff you're looking for.
Some other people have reported success with the following brand names of ammonia: Top Crest or Whirl Clear Ammonia. To paraphrase RTR: If it doesn't list the ingredients, or say Clear Ammonia (or Pure Ammonia or 100% Ammonia, or Pure Ammonium Hydroxide), then leave it on the shelf and look elsewhere.
Shake the bottle if you're not sure about it... ammonia with surfactants will foam, while good ammonia will not.
Water Changes and Ammonia Removing Chemicals:
A large water change (50-70%) should be done before adding any fish to the tank to lower nitrate levels, which can be a pain to bring down later. When changing the water during a fishless cycle, do NOT use dechlorinators that also sequester ammonia, such as the very popular Amquel.
I have heard from at least one individual who did everything right with regards to cycling her tank using this method... the tank cycled quickly, then she did a water change, then added a reasonable fishload the following day with more than adequate filtration, and observed both an ammonia and a nitrite spike. The only explanation that I could think of after questioning her extensively led back to the Amquel. In a normal, established fish tank, the ammonia is being generated nearly constantly... in a fishless cycle however, the ammonia is added as a daily dose... IMO, it's concievable (though not really provable unless a lot more people experienced identical problems) that the Amquel temporarily deprived the bacteria of its food source, causing a minor die-back in the colony at the worst possible time... right before adding her fish. To be on the safe side, use a simple chlorine/chloriamine remover which does not affect your ammonia levels.
By similar logic, any other ammonia removing chemicals (eg. Ammo-lock) or resins (Amrid) should also be avoided while cycling... they will affect the cycle, extending it's duration or otherwise adversely affecting the bacterial colonies.
Too Much Ammonia?:
It IS possible to add too much ammonia to the tank (generally several times the amounts suggested in either recipe), as some individuals discovered by mistake (thanks Boozap). What happens in this case is that the ammonia will spike very far off the chart then the nitrite will spike as well (also way off the chart), and it will continue to spike for a very long time.
Why? There are a couple of possibilities... the first is that the filter media and surfaces in the tank or oxygen levels are simply insufficient to grow and maintain a bacterial colony massive enough to convert all of the ammonia and all of the nitrite to nitrates.
Another likely possibility is that the ammonia levels are high enough to inhibit growth (through a biofeedback mechanism) of the bacteria rather than promoting it. The solution is quite simple, however. If you realize that you've added way too much ammonia simply do a water change, or if necessary a series of water changes to bring the ammonia and/or nitrite levels back into the readable range on your test kit. Then proceed as normal with daily additions of ammonia until the tank is cycled.
Fishless cycling is also very applicable to hospital/quarantine or fry growout tanks... when not in use, a maintenance dose of ammonia (eg. 2-3 drops/10 gallons) can be added daily to keep the tank cycled and ready for new fish indefinitely. Simply stop the addition the day before you want to buy your fish, take ammonia and nitrite tests to be certain that the levels are still zero, and do a water change to reduce nitrates.
A Few Additional Tips:
1) Get plain white pure ammonia solution and make sure it has nothing added (no colors and shake the bottle and make sure there are no suds formed--a sign of detergents).
2) Ammonia comes at a variety of concentrations so you should dose it in to get around 4-8ppm (if you add too much it will slow the process down). In a 29 gal tank with grocery store ammonia I was adding 2-4 mls of ammonia to get this reading.
3) Use a good test kit for Ammonia and Nitrite! Most people find Tetra to be the most reliable ammonia test kit--many test kits will grossly underestimate the ammonia levels -- this becomes critical when you are getting close to adding fish -- especially Discus which are very sensitive to ammonia. Buy a couple of test kits before you start or you may run out. You don't want to have to trust whatever kits your LFS has hanging around -- for example I found out the hard way that the Dry Tabs ammonia test will go off completely.
3a) You can use the Seachem "ammonia Sensor" while you cycling -- these are good for seeing it go from 5ppm to 1ppm, but they are not sensitive enough for Discus. Therefore make sure you switch to testing with Tetra ammonia test kit before you even think of putting fish in.
3b) You will also need a good nitrite test kits -- I like Wardley's nitrite kit best, but the Tetra nitrite kit is also fine (the only problem with the tetra kit is it slower than the wardley kit and stains the plastic test tubes if you don't clean them immediately after use).
4) Expect the first phase of the cycling (getting the ammonia eating, nitrite producing bacteria to grow) to take about 4-8 days if you keep the tank at 88-90C. This phase is completed when you can get the ammonia reading to go from 4-5ppm to 0 in 12-16 hours (i.e. you add ammonia in the evening and the next morning it is down to zero). You will typically see your highest (2-5 ppm) nitrite readings at this point.
5) The second phase of cycling (getting the nitrite eating, nitrate producing bacteria to grow) is often slower than the first phase. Typically for me it has taken 1-2 weeks after the end of the first phase. It is important to keep adding ammonia (half the dose used during the beginning of the cycle) every two days during this phase to make sure that you don't starve the ammonia eating bacteria. You will know you are fully cycled when you can add ammonia to 2-4ppm and then do a Tetra ammonia test and nitrite test and find zero for both in 14-16 hours.
6) Before adding fish do a 90% water change (or 3- 50% changes).
Hmm,..read this and thought i'd share it,..any opinions?